In the world of coffee, there are two major varieties; Arabica and Robusta. Arabica coffee in Brazil is grown at altitudes between 2,500 – 7,200 feet and yields less coffee per hectare, meaning higher cost in production. On the contrary, Robusta is grown at lower elevations and has more coffee per hectare creating a low production costs to help make it the staple of commercial coffee roasters for use in commercial coffee sales. This is why coffee Arabica is considered a specialty coffee. The best known varieties of Arabica are “Typica” and “Bourbon,” but from these, many different cultivars or cross breeds have been developed such as; Arusha, Caturra, Paca, Pacamara, Mundo Novo, and Maragogipe. In partnership with IAC (Agronomic Institute of Campinas), the Daterra Estate has carried out extensive research to produce the varieties yielding the best tasting cup of coffee. These include the following:
Typica – original natural coffee from Ethiopia.
Bourbon – mutant of Typica from the Island of Bourbon.
Caturra – natural mutant of Bourbon originated in Brasil.
Mundo Novo – natural cross pollination of Sumatra and Bourbon in Brazil.
Red and Yellow Icatu – back cross of Bourbon and Canephora Tetraploid.
Red and Yellow CatuaÃ – Back cross between Mundo Novo and Caturra.
Coffee is then graded Types 1 through 5, based on the number of defects found out of 300 grams when the sieving process begins.
Type 1: zero defects
Type 2: 4-11
Type 3: 12-24
Type 4: 26-44
Type 5: 44+